It seems that, just as there are different types of bullies, there are also different types of bystanders. Is your child a Co-Bully, a Passive Push Over, a Pre-Pressure Bystander or actually a Pre-Bully?
Some bystanders are what I call Co-Bullies. By that I mean that they stand back and prod the bully to initiate and/or continue bullying. They may laugh, tease, verbally support or simply stand in alliance with the bully. In some cases, once the action has begun, the Co-Bully may actually physically join in adding their presence along with both a verbal and physical element. Their very presence validates their acceptance of the act of bullying.
To find out more about the other types of by-stander behaviors read the Bully Maze Finding A Way Out Available on both Amazon.com and Smashwords.com